The Saginaw Trail
Map of Saginaw Trail
Of all the named Indian trails in Michigan, the Saginaw Trail is the oldest and certainly the most traveled in the trail system. Originating from the Straits of Detroit, this Sauk trail heads north-west through Pontiac, Flint and supposedly terminating in Saginaw. Saginaw was a major native population and cultural center in Michigan with over 109 Chippewa Indian villages recorded. Saginaw was at a crossroads of numerous rivers and at the base of Saginaw Bay. From here natives could travel direct to the other major hunting and trading points in Michigan. Some researchers denote the Saginaw Trail as continuing to the Traverse Bay area, sharing the route of the Mackinac trail.
The Interior Route
When the French explorers and fur traders arrived they found the trail useful as a trade route into the interior of Michigan. Tribes utilized the trail to travel to eastern forts and outposts to receive treaty payments from the British. Likewise the French fur traders established themselves at key trail points for trading. In 1818, the Michigan Territorial Government approved the construction of a turnpike that led from Saginaw to Pontiac. In 1822, approval was granted to extend the road from Pontiac to Detroit. This turnpike was hardly better than a swampy sea of mud. It was described by William McCormick who traveled the route in 1831 —“the mud was so deep one span of horses could not draw the wagon through.”
The Michigan territory did not have funds to continue improving the Saginaw Turnpike. Requests to the US Government for funds were approved in 1827 and the road completed in 1841.
Saginaw Trail Historical Monument
The Saginaw Trail running from Detroit to Saginaw through Pontiac and Flint was originally an Indian trail. In 1816 Michigan Territorial government authorized the building of a road from Detroit to Saginaw along the trail. Part of the trail in Oakland County is now Woodward Avenue and Dixie Highway. Evidence of the original Saginaw Trail path through Royal Oak is still visible as a Depression in the ground running northwesterly across the property adjacent to the John Almon Starr House.
Significant Historical Spots Along the Saginaw Trail
Straits of Detroit – The term Detroit has named by the early French explorers denoted the entire length river system from Lake Huron to Lake Erie. In 1701 Cadillac established Fort Detroit on the high shore of the Detroit River. This area was also known as a terminating point for several trails that crisscrossed Michigan.
Pontiac – Michigan Governor’s Mansion – Moses Wisner was governor of Michigan from 1859 to 1861. He was born June 3, 1813 in New York. He came to Michigan in 1837. In 1841 he was admitted to the Bar and practiced law until the Civil War. In 1862 Colonel Wisner took command of the 22nd Michigan Infantry. In the same year the regiment went to Kentucky where Wisner died in January 5, 1863.
This property was purchased by Moses Wisner in 1844, served as the Michigan Governor’s Mansion from 1859-1861. Angelina Hascall Wisner, wife of Moses made it her home until her death in 1905, and members of the Wisner family resided here until 1945 when it was purchased by the Oakland County Historical Foundation.
Drayton Plains – The Drayton Plains Hotel – This hotel was an early stagecoach stop along the Saginaw Trail. Built In 1839 by Daniel Windiate.
Caughnawaga Indian Encampment at a Portage
Grand Traverse of the Flint – The place where the trail crossed the Flint river was known as the Grand Traverse, or great crossing place. It was described as an open plain lying in the bend of the river. The area named, Muscatawingh in Chippewa, meaning ‘the plain burned over.’ Gardens were also known to be in this area and has a camping ground. The city of Flint Michigan grew up around this crossing.